vor 4 Stunden Alle Rettungsbemühungen waren vergeblich: In Spanien ist der zweijährige Julen tot in einem Meter tiefen Brunnenschacht gefunden. Spanien | Die A-Z-Liste aller von euronews publizierten Meldungen aus den Themenbereichen Internationale Politik, Wirtschaft, Wissenschaft und Lifestyle. vor 1 Stunde In rund 70 Metern Tiefe haben Helfer im spanischen Totalán die Leiche des verschollenen Julen geborgen. Anscheinend war der Junge "im.
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De norra delarna av Navarra och Baskien infogades i Frankrike. Under slutet av talet inleddes Spaniens era som turistland.
Regeringen leds av regeringschefen spanska: Marinflyget har helikoptrar och Hawker Siddeley Harrier stridsflygplan.
I slutet av talet utvecklades Spaniens industrier. Produktionen uppgick till omkring 30 miljoner hektoliter.
The most important commodity for Oaxaca was cochineal red dye. The rich, color-fast red dye produced from insects, was harvested from nopal cacti.
Cochineal was a high-value, low-volume product that became the second-most valuable Mexican export after silver. Although it could be produced elsewhere in central and southern Mexico, its main region of production was Oaxaca.
For the indigenous in Oaxaca, cochineal was the only one "with which the [tributaries] maintain themselves and pay their debts" but it also had other advantages for them.
Although the repartimiento has historically been seen as an imposition on the indigenous, forcing them into economic relations they would rather have avoided and maintained by force,  recent work on eighteenth-century Oaxaca analyzes the nexus of crown officials the alcaldes mayores and Spanish merchants, and indigenous via the repartimiento.
Indigenous elites were an integral part of the repartimiento, often being recipients of large extensions of credit. As authority figures in their community, they were in a good position to collect on the debt, the most risky part of the business from the Spanish point of view.
The Isthmus of Tehuantepec region of Oaxaca was important for its short transit between the Gulf Coast and the Pacific, facilitating both overland and sea trade.
The province of Tehuantepec was the Pacific side of the isthmus and the headwaters of the Coatzacoalcos River.
Gold mining was an early draw for Spaniards, who directed indigenous labor to its extraction, but did not continue beyond the mid-sixteenth century.
Over the long run, ranching and commerce were the most important economic activities, with the settlement of Tehuantepec becoming the hub.
The second period of approximately a century — saw the decline of the indigenous entailed estate cacicazgo and indigenous political power and development of the colonial economy and imposition of Spanish political and religious structures.
The final period is the maturation of these structures — The rebellion can be a dividing line between the two later periods. The Villa of Tehuantepec , the largest settlement on the isthmus, was an important prehispanic Zapotec trade and religious center, which was not under the jurisdiction of the Aztecs.
The Marquesado continued to have major private holdings in the province. The Villa of Tehuantepec became a center of Spanish and mixed-race settlement, crown administration, and trade.
However important the Marquesado and the Dominican enterprises were, there were also other economic players in the region, including individual Spaniards as well as existing indigenous communities.
Ranching emerged as the dominant rural enterprise in most of Tehuantepec with a ranching boom in the period — Since Tehuantepec experienced significant indigenous population loss in the sixteenth century conforming to the general pattern, ranching made possible for Spaniards to thrive in Tehuantepec because ranching was not dependent on significant amounts of indigenous labor.
Cattle ranching for meat, tallow, and leather were also important. Tallow for candles used in churches and residences and leather used in a variety of ways saddles, other tack, boots, furniture, machinery were significant items in the larger colonial economy, finding markets well beyond Tehuantepec.
Since the Marquesado operated as an integrated enterprise, draft animals were used in other holdings for transport, agriculture, and mining in Oaxaca, Morelos, Toluca, and Mexico City as well as sold.
Raised in Tehuantepec, the animals were driven to other Marquesado holdings for use and distribution. Although colonial population decline affected the indigenous in Tehuantepec, their communities remained important in the colonial era and remain distinctly Indian to the current era.
There were differences in the three distinct linguistic and ethnic groups in colonial Tehuantepec, the Zapotec , the Zoque , and the Huave.
The Zapotecs concluded an alliance with the Spaniards at contact, and they had already expanded their territory into Zoque and Huave regions.
Under Spanish rule, the Zapotecs not only survived, but flourished, unlike the other two. They continued to pursue agriculture, some of it irrigated, which was not disrupted by the growing ranching economy.
Zapotec elites engaged in the market economy early on, which undermined to an extent the bonds between commoners and elites who colluded with the Spanish.
In contrast to the Zapotecs, the Zoque generally declined as a group during the ranching boom, with interloping animals eating their maize crops.
Zoque response was to take up being vaqueros themselves. They had access to the trade to Guatemala. Of the three indigenous groups, the Huave were the most isolated from the Spanish ranching economy and labor demands.
They traded dried shrimp and fish, as well as purple dye from shells to Oaxaca, likely acquiring foodstuffs that they were unable to cultivate themselves.
Not well documented is the number of African slaves and their descendants, who were artisans in urban areas and did hard manual labor in rural areas.
In general, Tehuantepec was not a site of major historical events, but in —61, there was a significant rebellion stemming from increased repartimiento Spanish demands.
Spanish settlers brought to the American continent smallpox , measles , typhoid fever , and other infectious diseases.
Most of the Spanish settlers had developed an immunity to these diseases from childhood, but the indigenous peoples lacked the needed antibodies since these diseases were totally alien to the native population at the time.
There were at least three separate, major epidemics that decimated the population: In the course of the 16th century, the native population in Mexico went from an estimated pre-Columbian population of 8 to 20 million to less than two million.
Therefore, at the start of the 17th century, continental New Spain was a depopulated country with abandoned cities and maize fields.
These diseases would not affect the Philippines in the same way because the diseases were already present in the country; Pre-Hispanic Filipinos had contact with other foreign nationalities before the arrival of the Spaniards.
Following the Spanish conquests, new ethnic groups were created, primary among them the Mestizo. The Mestizo population emerged as a result of the Spanish colonizers having children with indigenous women, both within and outside of wedlock, which brought about the mixing of both cultures.
See Hyperdescent and Hypodescent. Because of this, the term "Mestizo" was associated with illegitimacy. Mestizos do not appear in large numbers in official censuses until the second half of the 17th century, when a sizable and stable community of mixed-race people with no claims to being either Indian or Spanish appeared, although, of course, a large population of biological Mestizos had already existed for over a century in Mexico.
The Spanish conquest also brought the migration of people of African descent to the many regions of the Viceroyalty. Some came as free blacks , but vast majority came because of the introduction of African slavery.
As the native population was decimated by epidemics and forced labor, black slaves were imported. Mixes with Europeans and indigenous peoples also occurred, resulting in the creation of new racial categories such as Mulattos and Zambos to account for these offspring.
As with the term Mestizo, these other terms were associated with illegitimacy, since a majority—though not all—of these people were born outside of wedlock.
Eventually a caste system was created to describe the various mixes and to assign them a different social level. In theory, each different mix had a name and different sets of privileges or prohibitions.
In reality, mixed-race people were able to negotiate various racial and ethnic identities often several ones at different points in their lives depending on the family ties and wealth they had.
In its general outline, the system reflected reality. The upper echelons of government were staffed by Spaniards born in Spain peninsulares , the middle and lower levels of government and other higher paying jobs were held by Criollos Criollos were Spaniards born in the Americas, or—as permitted by the casta system—Spaniards with some Amerindian or even other ancestry.
Mestizos and Mulattos held artisanal positions and unskilled laborers were either more mixed people, such as Zambos , recently freed slaves or Natives who had left their communities and settled in areas with large Hispanic populations.
This rough sketch must be complicated by the fact that not only did exceptions exist, but also that all these "racial" categories represented social conventions, as demonstrated by the fact that many persons were assigned a caste based on hyperdescent or hypodescent.
Even if mixes were common, the white population tried to keep their higher status, and were largely successful in doing so. With Mexican and Central American independence, the caste system and slavery were theoretically abolished.
However, it can be argued that the Criollos simply replaced the Peninsulares in terms of power. In modern Mexico, "Mestizo" has become more a cultural term, since Indigenous people who abandon their traditional ways are considered Mestizos.
Also, most Afro-Mexicans prefer to be considered Mestizo, since they identify closely with this group. While different intendencies would perform censuses to get a detailed insight in regards to its inhabitants namely occupation, number of persons per household, ethnicity etc.
The census is also known as the "Revillagigedo census" because its creation was ordered by the Count of the same name. Each author gives different estimations for the total population, ranging from 3,, to 6,,   more recent data suggests that the actual population of New Spain in was closer to 5 or 5.
It is also for these reasons that the number of Indigenous Mexicans presents the greater variation range between publications, as in cases their numbers in a given location were estimated rather than counted, leading to possible overestimations in some provinces and possible underestimations in others.
Some of the most important early buildings in New Spain were churches and other religious architecture. Civil architecture included the viceregal palace, now the National Palace, and the Mexico City town council cabildo , both located on the main square in the capital.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Plus Ultra "Further Beyond". Marcha Real "Royal March". Maximum extension of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, with the incorporation of Louisiana - In light green the territory not controlled effectively, but claimed as part of the Viceroyalty.
History of Roman Catholicism in Mexico. Spanish colonization of the Americas. History of the Philippines. Spanish treasure fleet and Manila galleon.
Economic history of Mexico. Royal Audiencia of Mexico. History of Mexico City. Mexican art and Mexican architecture.
For a complete chart, see Hamnett , p. University of Texas Press Mundy, The Mapping of New Spain: University of Chicago Press University of Chicago Press , p.
The Northward Advance of New Spain, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press Prentice Hall , Gradie, The Tepehuan Revolt of University of Utah Press Farriss, Crown and Clergy in Colonial Mexico, The Crisis of Ecclesiastical Privilege.
A History of Politicoecclesiastical Relations. University of North Carolina Press University of New Mexico Press University of Florida Press Fitzroy Dearborn , p.
University of Chicago Press , pp. Prentice Hall , pp. This is the definitive study of the tobacco monopoly.
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Juan Bautista de Arizpe. The Caste War of Yucatan. Yucatec Culture and Society, — Africans, Mayas, and Spaniards in Colonial Yucatan. Robinson, William Wilcox Spanish PM pledges fresh dialogue with Catalan separatists.
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